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   2020| July-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 7, 2020

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Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice of meat hygiene among meat handlers in Lagos State, Nigeria
Gbolabo J Kehinde, Adebola Afolake Adejimi, Abdul-Hakeem O Abiola
July-December 2020, 18(2):27-36
Background: Food-borne disease remains a major global health challenge in developing countries. Cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling as a result of poor knowledge and practices of meat handlers is a major contributing factor for meat-borne diseases. Adequate knowledge and preventive practices of meat handlers are important in limiting the outbreak of food-borne disease and contamination of raw meat. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practice of meat hygiene and the associated factors among meat handlers in abattoirs and slaughter houses in Lagos State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was carried out among 318 meat handlers in Lagos, Nigeria, who were selected using a multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data concerning their knowledge, attitude, and practice of meat hygiene, and data analysis was done using EpiInfo™ for Windows. Chi-square statistics was used to test the association between the variables at the level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean age was 39.07 years ± 12.7 standard deviation. Majority had good knowledge (71.1%), attitude (53.1%), and practice (66.6%) of meat hygiene. Significant association was found between knowledge and age (P < 0.001), tribe (P < 0.001), and length of work experience (P < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant association between practice of meat hygiene and age (P < 0.001), tribe (P = 0.0174), level of education (P = 0.0029), work experience (P < 0.001), and religion (P = 0.0194). There was statistically significant association also between knowledge and practice of meat hygiene (P < 0.001). Older meat handlers with more years of work experience (>20 years) had better knowledge and practice of meat hygiene compared to their younger colleagues. Conclusions: Public health education, policy formulation, and regular training and retraining of the meat handlers on safe meat handling as well as general and personal hygiene are strongly recommended.
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Association between handling of alginate impression and quality of dentures
Bolanle Oyeyemi Akinboboye, Olugbenga A Adenuga-Taiwo, Paul I Idon, Linda Oge Okoye, Patricia Adetokunbo Akeredolu
July-December 2020, 18(2):43-47
Objectives: Alginate impression commonly used in denture fabrication has drawbacks, which affects the quality of dentures. The objective is to determine the association between handling of alginate and denture quality. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to dental personnel, managing patients that required removable prosthesis in a multicenter cross-sectional pilot study. Information gathered were that of age, sex, number of teeth replaced, manipulation of impression material, disinfection of impression material, and quality of dentures. Likert scales were used to rate the participants' manipulation of alginate impressions and the quality of dentures. Statistical Analysis: Data were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Differences between categorical variables were tested for significance using Chi-square tests, and Student's t-test was used for means. A linear relationship between variables was tested using correlation statistics, and all statistical significance was inferred at P < 0.05. Results: Sixty-nine participants with a mean age of 27.00 ± 6.93 (20–57 years) took part in this study. The proportion of females seen was 55.1%. The mean number of dentures fitted was 10.03 ± 5.44, and 5.14 ± 2.71 dentures were relined annually. The most common partial edentulous case was Kennedy Class III (72.5%). There was a weak but insignificant positive association (r = 0.19, P = 0.12) between the quality of denture and handling of alginate impression material. There was also no significant correlation between the years of experience of the participants and scores for quality of denture (r = 0.02, P = 0.86) nor handling of impression by the participants (r = −0.07, P = 0.57). Conclusion: The participants' handling of alginate impression did not influence the quality of partial dentures made from them.
  4,067 254 -
Ultrasonographic diagnosis and ultrasonic reduction of intussusception in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria
Chisolum O Okafor, Michael Echeta Aronu, Catherine Obasikene, Jideofor O Ugwu
July-December 2020, 18(2):48-52
Background: Intussusception is a common cause of intestinal obstruction among infants. Delayed diagnosis and treatment worsen the outcome with possible mortality. At present, ultrasonography is the preferred tool for both diagnosis and treatment for select cases. It is also useful in the diagnosis of comorbidities and as a guide to pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction of intussusception. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the ultrasound features of intussusceptions and to correlate its findings with surgical findings at a tertiary health-care facility. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, South-east Nigeria, between 2014 and 2016. Data were extracted from case notes, theater records, and radiology, and the following domains were explored: sociodemographic data, ultrasound findings, and intraoperative findings. The data obtained were recorded in an Excel Spreadsheet and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 20, and the results were reviewed in tables and charts. Results: A total of 15 patients that met the inclusion criteria were used for this study. There were more males than that of females, and the peak age was between 4 and 6 months. Most of the patients were scanned and operated after 24 h from the onset of symptoms. The most common presenting symptom was vomiting, and most of the masses were in the right hemiabdomen. Conclusion: The sensitivity of ultrasound in our study was 100%, and this correlates with the findings in other studies. The use of ultrasound early in patients with increased clinical suspicion will, therefore, help to reduce the unnecessary delays in intervention and therefore reduce the complications.
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Perceptions toward performance status scale in the management of head-and-neck cancer patients among health-care providers in Edo State, Nigeria
Olajumoke Babalola, Ekaniyere Benlance Edetanlen
July-December 2020, 18(2):37-42
Background: The role of performance status scales (PSSs) are well documented globally in the management of cancer patients in the developed countries but not in low-income countries, mainly due to the lack of awareness. The aim of the present study is to assess the level of awareness, knowledge, and practice of PSSs among medical physicians managing head-and-neck tumors in Edo state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study that recruited all physicians that manage head and neck in Edo state between April 2019 and December 2019. Data were obtained with a self-administered questionnaire, which was given to all who participants that gave written informed consent. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 (IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). Results: One hundred and six of the 110 randomly distributed questionnaires were retrieved, given a response rate of 96.4%. The male-to-female ratio was 2.4:1.0. The mean age was 33.3 ± 5.30 years, ranging from 25 to 46 years. Most of the respondents were within the age range of 31–40 years. Of the total 106 respondents, less than half (46.2%) had heard of PSS. More than two-thirds (73.6%) of the respondents that are aware of PSS had poor general knowledge. More than half (53.8%) of the respondents answered that they have never used PSS in the course of managing head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients. The age, gender, years of practice, type of specialty, and location of practice were not related to the knowledge of PSS by the respondents (P > 0.05), but only the awareness of PSS was related to knowledge of PSS (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Most medical practitioners that manage HNC patients lack awareness and knowledge of PSSs, which reflected in poor utilization in the management of patients in routine practice.
  3,419 225 -
Hysterolaparoscopy (pan-endoscopy) in the management of female infertility in Nigeria: A report of 230 cases
Joseph Odirichukwu Ugboaja, Charlotte Blanche Oguejiofor, Onyecherelam Monday Ogelle
July-December 2020, 18(2):53-58
Background: Hysterolaparoscopy has emerged as a better evaluation tool than laparoscopy and dye test in cases of infertility because of the ability to evaluate intra uterine lesions. Objective: To examine the role of Hysterolaparoscopy in the management of infertile women who were seen in 2 Fertility/ Gynaecological Endoscopy units in Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive survey of the first 230 infertile women who were managed in the fertility and Gynaecological endoscopy units of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi Anambra State, Nigeria and Holy Rosary Specialist Hospital & Maternity, Onitsha, Nigeria. Data were analyzed with STATA software, version 12.0 SE (Stata Corporation, TX, USA). Result: The mean age of the women was 35.6+/- 5.9 years and the mean duration of infertility was 4.6+/- 2.7 years. More than half (53.9%. n=43) of the women had secondary infertility. Ninety -eight (42.61%) of the women had done a pelvic surgery in the past and pelvic ultrasound study was abnormal in 95(41.3%) of them. Abnormal hysteroscopy was found in 152 (66.1%) of the women and comprised mainly of intrauterine adhesions (41.%; n=95), endometrial polyps (20.%; n= 46), submucous fibroids (16.1%; n=37) and mullerian duct abnormalities (14.8%; n=34). Other findings were lost IUCD (6.1%'n=14), retained fetal bone (2.6%; n=6) and incarcerated omentum (2.2%; n=5). Abnormal laparoscopy findings were seen in 171 (74.4%) of the women. The main abnormal laparoscopy findings were tubal pathologies (161, n=70.0%), pelvic adhesions (39.6%, n=91), polycystic ovaries (33.0%; n=76), and endometriosis (8.8%, n=19). Tubal pathologies comprised mainly tubal occlusions (56.5%, n=130), hydrosalpinx (41.7%, n= 96) and plastered tubes (25.7%, n=59). Bilateral tubal occlusion was seen in 46 (20.0%). Conclusion: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective tool for evaluating tuboperitoneal and intrauterine lesions among infertile women. There is a need to develop the capacity for this investigative modality.
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The Coronavirus pandemic: Why the continent of Africa appears relatively spared in severity – An immunological perspective
Cyril M I. Ekhayemhe, Eugene E Akujuru
July-December 2020, 18(2):59-61
  1,855 191 1